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Виноделие

Ферментативный био-анализ играет важную роль на всех стадиях производства вина:


До начала спиртовой ферментации необходимо проверить качество виноградного сока, для определения оптимальных условий роста дрожжей. Необходимо определить количество азота, усваиваемого дрожжами, первичных аминоазотов и L-аргинина, а также основных сахаров для ферментации — D-фруктозы и D-глюкозы.

В процессе спиртовой ферментации необходимо наблюдать за количеством уксусной кислоты, для обнаружения нежелательной конаминации ацетобактериями, а наблюдение за количеством мочевины необходимо для определения момента когда необходима добавка уреаз для устранения риска формирования канцерогена этил карбомата. Концентрации ацетальдегида, этанола, глицерина и янтарной кислоты увеличиваются на стадии спиртовой ферментации.


Если для производства вина выбрана яблочно-молочная ферментация, то необходимо детектировать скорость падения концентрации L-яблочной и лимонной кислоты и рост концентрации L-молочной кислоты. Кроме тогоПадающий уровень лимонной кислоты также могут быть определены.


Для определения качества полученного вида проводится ряд процедур для ферментативного определения: ацетальдегида и уксусной кислоты, L-аскорбиновой кислоты, этанола и глицерина, D-фруктозы и D-глюкозы, L- и D- глюконовой кислоты, L- и D- молочной кислоты, L- и D- яблочной кислоты, D-сорбитола, янтарной кислоты и мочевины.


Analyte          

Cat. No.       

Analyte Significance

Advantages of Megazyme Test Kits

Acetaldehyde

K-ACHYD

A sensory compound that adds flavour and complexity, but spoils wine at high concentrations

AcDH supplied as a stabilised solution rather than a lyophilised powder, thus less wasted enzyme

Acetic Acid

K-ACET
K-ACETAF
K-ACETAK
K-ACETRM
K-ACETGK

A sensory compound that adds flavour and complexity in small amounts, but spoils wine at high concentrations. Produced naturally by yeast in small amounts and by spoilage organisms such as Acetobacter aceti in large quantities. This is the predominant of the acids comprising ~ 85 % volatile acidity (VA)

All kits contain PVP to prevent tannin inhibition. 
K-ACET (manual, efficient) contains stable ACS suspension.
K-ACETAF (auto) used to prepare very stable R1 and R2.
K-ACETAK (auto) / K-ACETRM (manual) are very rapid
acetate kinase (AK) based kits with excellent linearity.
K-ACETGK is a new rapid, auto-analyser assay kit
employing AK and phosphotransacetylase. Stable reagents

Ammonia

K-AMIAR
K-LARGE

Most important inorganic source of Yeast Available Nitrogen (YAN)

Novel enzyme employed is not inhibited by tannins, endpoint reaction time ~ 3 min. Ideal for manual and auto-analyser applications

L-Arginine

K-LARGE

Most important amino acid in grape juice with respect to YAN

Simple and rapid test kit gives sequential values for ammonia, urea and L-arginine. No tannin inhibition

L-Ascorbic Acid

K-ASCO

Present naturally in grapes and can be added as an anti-oxidant

Rapid reaction, stable reagents

Citric Acid

K-CITR

Naturally present in small amounts; large amounts indicate addition for acidification (EU limit is 1 g/L)

Ideal for both manual and auto-analyser applications. Reconstituted citrate lyase stable for > 6 months at -20°C. Stable reagents

Ethanol

K-ETOH

Produced during alcoholic fermentation. Amounts > 17.5 % (v/v) indicate supplementation

Rapid reaction, stable reagents (AlDH supplied as a stable suspension)

D-Fructose /

D-Glucose

K-FRUGL
K-FRGLMQ 
K-FRGLQR

Grape quality indicator. One of the two principle fermentable sugars of grape juice

Contains PVP to prevent tannin inhibition. Ideal for manual and auto-analyser use. Stable reagents

D-Gluconic Acid

K-GATE

Grape quality indicator for the production of certain wines

Rapid reaction, stable reagents

Glycerol

K-GCROL
K-GCROLGK

Quality indicator of finished wine, important for “mouth feel”

Novel tablet format offers superior stability, rapid reaction

D-Lactic Acid

K-DATE
K-DLATE

Produced predominantly by lactic acid spoilage bacteria

Rapid reaction, stable reagents

L-Lactic Acid

K-LATE
K-DLATE

Produced predominantly from L-malic acid during malolactic fermentation

Rapid reaction, stable reagents. Ideal for manual and auto-analyser applications

D-Malic Acid

K-DMAL

Only present in significant quantities in adulterated wine

D-MDH supplied as a stabilised suspension rather than a lyophilised powder, thus less wasted enzyme

L-Malic Acid

K-LMAL 
K-LMALAF
K-LMALMQ
K-LMALQR

Grape quality indicator. Very important grape acid, converted to less acidic L-lactic acid during malolactic fermentation

All kits contain PVP to prevent tannin inhibition.
1. K-LMALR/L (manual) rapid reaction
2. K-LMALAF (auto) rapid reaction, excellent linearity
3. K-LMALMQ (manual, colorimeter based)
4. K-LMALQR (auto) liquid ready reagent

Primary Amino Nitrogen (NOPA)

K-PANOPA

Primary amino nitrogen (PAN) is the most important organic source of YAN

Novel kit, rapid reaction, stable reagents, simple format

D-Sorbitol

K-SORB

High levels indicate addition of fruit

Diaphorase supplied as a stabilised suspension rather than a lyophilised powder, thus less wasted enzyme

Succinic Acid

K-SUCC

Wine acid produced during fermentation

Rapid reaction (~ 6 min even at room temperature), stable reagents

Sucrose

K-SUFRG
K-SUCGL

Added to increase the amount of alcohol. Use only permitted in certain situations

Choice of simple formats available, based either on glucose oxidase / peroxidase, or hexokinase / G-6-PDH

Sulphite

K-SULPH
K-TSULPH
K-ETSULPH

Sulphites are used as an essential additive in the control of microbial contamination during aging and to also protect the wine against detrimental “oxidative and enzymatic browning”

Choice of simple formats available, based either on liquid ready reagent chemical reactions (K-SULPH & K-TSULPH) or an enzymatic reaction (K-ETSULPH). Stable reagents

Tartaric Acid

K-TART

Occurs naturally in grapes and is one of the most prevalent organic acids. Key indicator of total (titratable) acidity (TA)

Stable liquid ready reagents. Simple, rapid chemical reaction for manual, auto-analyser and microplate formats

Urea

K-URAMR

Source of YAN and precursor of the carcinogen ethyl carbamate. Over-supplementation with DAP can result in elevated levels

Simple, very rapid (both urea and ammonia measured in < 10 min at room temperature) and sequential / efficient (only one cuvette required per sample)